Peptide therapeutics, due to their various advantages such as high stability, selectivity, safety, efficacy, bioavailability, and tolerability offers wide applications over the other therapeutics classes. Over 7,000 naturally occurring peptides have been identified, which have crucial roles in human physiology, which include hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, ion channel, and ligands. The structure of these peptides is usually complex and these conformations depending upon their environment.
Manufacturers are focusing on developments in biologics and biopharmaceutical peptides and proteins for application in diagnostics and therapies. According to the data published in Drug Discovery Today, in January 2015, around 140 peptide therapeutics are currently evaluated in clinical trials. Peptide therapeutics are increasingly been used for therapeutics in metabolic diseases and oncology. Rising incidence of metabolic diseases such as Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and Obesity are expected to be factors driving growth of the market. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 data findings, the number people suffering from diabetes have increased from 108 million to 422 million in 2014.
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Similarly, the world obesity rate has increased three times since 1975 and in 2016, over 1.9 billion adults (18 year and above) were estimated to be overweight. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) October 2017 data findings, in 2011–2012, 78 million U.S. adults had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which put them at high risk of heart disease and stroke. However, high prices of products is expected to negatively impact the overall market growth.
Among the metabolic disorders, the risk of developing type 1 and type 2 diabetes is related to the combination of variants in multiple genes. In rare cases, patients which are monogenic having single gene mutation which can lead to diabetes. The first peptide to be administrated therapeutically was insulin and has been used in the treatment of diabetes. Development of novel analogues such as lispro insulin that is an injection to be taken prior to meal, has also aided in growth of the market. Another important peptide is glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which has insulin-releasing properties and also helps to suppress the glucagon level. The glucose dependent action of GLP-1 is more potent to regulate glucose level after a meal. These properties of peptides has aided in development of novel therapeutics and is expected to drive growth of the market in the near future. According to the data published in the January 2015, in Drug Discovery Today Journal, total 60 peptides-based drugs such as viscozyme, pulmozyme, glucagen are available in the market and number of other therapeutic peptides such as cpd86 (preclinical), MOD-6030 (preclinical), MAR709 (II) and semaglutide (III) are currently evaluated in different phase of clinical trial thus, strong pipeline is expected to propel growth of the peptide therapeutics in metabolic disorders market in the near future.
Key players in the market are focusing on collaborations and new product launches, in order to enhance their market share. For instance, Rhythm Pharmaceuticals Inc. is engaged in developing obesity drug called setmelanotide a Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonist peptide that is meant to be injected daily to regulate the body energy balance and appetite. Moreover, in June 2017, Rhythm Pharmaceuticals and Camurus AB released the positive initial results from ongoing Phase 1A clinical trial, which evaluated the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of an extended-release formulation of setmelanotide.
The company is also conducting trials for the treatment of extremely rare metabolic disorders such as Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Leptin receptor (LepR) deficiency obesity. Furthermore, in September, 2017, Zealand Pharma and Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies entered into a research collaboration for multi-target research to identify novel peptide-based products by using Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies (TPIMS’s) peptide libraries. This collaboration will help to develop specialty medicines to treat metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases.
AstraZeneca plc, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Sanofi S.A., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., PolyPeptide Group, Eli Lilly and Company, Bachem Holding AG, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., Ipsen S.A, Rhythm Pharmaceuticals Inc., and Novo Nordisk A/S.